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Financieel onafhankelijk worden in Nederland

Deze subreddit gaat over het bereiken van financiële onafhankelijkheid: genoeg geld/bezittingen hebben om niet meer te hoeven werken voor de kost (je kan desgewenst ook gaan rentenieren). In het Engels heet dit financial independence and retiring early, afgekort: FIRE. Deze subreddit gaat over FIRE in Nederland, de voertaal is Nederlands. We hebben een wiki en stellen 't op prijs als je die leest! Contributions/questions in English about FIRE in the Netherlands are also welcome.
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[PDF] Little Gidding and its inmates in the Time of King Charles I. with an account of the Harmonies

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Tekashi 6ix9ine, anime and crossdressing [autism]

In the interest of giving back to the drama community I wanted to share some more or less completely useless information based on misleading research, circumstantial evidence, and a variety of unfair assumptions. With these powerful forces working in my favor I will demonstrate how Tekashi 6ix9ine is likely the preeminent ambassador of autogynephilia in the world today.
  To begin, some context:
Tekashi 6ix9ine (formally pronounced Tekashi Sixix Nineine) is a zoomer rapper that became popular over the last two years as a result of his innovative music, abrasive online presence and distinct rainbow aesthetic. Despite the success he earned in the music industry, 69’s continued affiliation with a local NYC Blood set led to his eventual arrest under the RICO act in November 2018. The 22 year old currently faces life in prison due to racketeering and firearms indictments including conspiracy to commit murder, armed robbery and fentanyl distribution.
On a soon-to-be-related note, Transvestic Fetishism (302.3 in DSM V) describes a paraphilia wherein one is “Sexually Aroused by Fabrics, Materials, or Garments” or “Sexually Aroused by Thought or Image of Self as Female”. Both of these turn-ons at one point in time fell into a catch-all bucket called autogynephilia or AGP. AGP is now mostly deprecated within academic circles in favor of more modern trans-inclusive language (see here) but you’ll still find the term used in places like /lgbt/, GenderCritical, and this post.   “Got it, u/ SJU” you are thinking, “it’s cool to learn what gives you boners and all but how does that apply to Tekashi?”. Despacito, eager dramanaut – just as the infant must crawl before they can walk, we too must first learn how to stereotype before we can make naïve accusations.   Non homosexual autogynephilic men (straight guys that crossdress) often check off a few of the following traits:
  1. Crossdressing – this is their signature move and the unifying lifeforce of all AGP men.
  2. Work in male-dominated fields – think military, computer engineers or competitive boxing. [src p. 86]
  3. Misogyny – they unironically fetishize women as fuck objects which can manifest in misogynistic conduct. [src p.127]
  4. Multiple paraphilias – it’s typical for unusual sexual tastes (e.g. sadomasochism, voyeurism, pedophilia, etc.) to co-occur with additional unusual sexual tastes. [src p. 79]
  5. Hyper masculine – given the internal sexual competition between autogynephilia and heterosexuality, insecure AGP men may overcompensate by being extra machismo. [Blanchard (1991). Clinical observations and systematic studies of autogynephilia. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 17, 241.*] and [src p. 527-528]
  6. Shifty sexuality – straight guys that are secretly bisexual but are actually even more secretly just pretending to be bisexual. Ever wonder what the appeal is of sissy & feminization porn? [src p.138]
  7. Weebiness – Ray Blanchard, the PhD psychologist that originally coined the term AGP, Twitter-endorsed this essay regarding “the possible relations among anime, gender dysphoria, and autogynephilia”.
  8. Autism – autists are more likely than neurotypicals (aka normies aka people that aren’t reading this post) to experience gender dysphoria. [src]
    • Note also that some autistic people have limited language development and skills [src], often have obsessions/intense special interests [src], are more resistant to social conformity [src], are more prone to experiencing loneliness [src] and have less reciprocal friendships (Church, Alinsanski, & Amanullah, 2000).
  Now let’s finally see how Tekashi stacks up against our list:
  1. Crossdressing – beyond the obvious long rainbow hair, 6ix9ine has telegraphed femininity in his music videos, even going as far as literally inserting his face onto a woman’s body in a bikini in ‘Gotti’.
  2. Male-Dominated Occupation – rap is almost exclusively men [src] and the genre is practically marinated in masculine honor culture.
  3. Misogyny – to be fair, 69’s lyrics are probably no more misogynistic than what’s already prevalent in the industry. That said, Tekashi & friends got into a street-blocking brawl at LAX after allegedly “disrespecting women” of a rival crew. Additionally, 69 allegedly struck his daughter’s mother in November 2018 after she confronted him about cheating on her with a stripper.
  4. Multiple paraphilias – 69 pled guilty to felony sexual misconduct charges related to his use of a child in a sexual performance back in 2015. Yikers Island m'big chief.
  5. Hyper masculine – stoking drama (beef in AAVE) is one of 69’s fortes. Since 2017, he has allegedly been involved in jumping Trippie Redd, fighting rivals at LAX, firing shots at Chief Keef at the W, and participating in armed robberies and shootings with his former co-members of the Nine Trey Bloods. [src]
  6. Shifty sexuality – prominent rapper peer Trippie Redd has suggested that 69 is secretly gay. Furthermore 6ix9ine also says dick more than 4x the amount he says pussy in his 10 most popular songs [per lyrical analysis I conducted, excluding Bebe].
  7. Weebiness
    • The name Tekashi is derived from Takashi Murakami, a famous Japanese visual artist. [src]
    • 6ix9ine’s album, mixtape, and half his singles feature custom art with anime characters.
    • He explicitly references anime in his song titles and music videos. [src].
  8. Autism
    • Limited language expression: The combination of Tekashi’s ten most popular songs reveals a lexical density of 21.8%, less than half of a standard spoken interview lexical density of ~45%. [src] Note his density figure would probably go down significantly if I had used a sample larger than 1.9k words.
    • Obsessive + resistant to conformity: the guy literally has the number ‘69’ tattooed on his body more than 200 times. Even before he was Tekashi69 he was still dedicated to being an unconventional aesthete: [PUSSY EATER], [HIV HOE].
    • Loneliness: 69’s music heavily promoted his affiliation with S.C.U.M Gang aka Society Can’t Understand Me Gang. [src]
    • Less reciprocal friendships: the Nine Trey Bloods turned on 69, ejecting him from the gang and making plans to shoot him after milking him for money for years. [src]
  Now, my humanities undergraduate degree typically prevents me from counting this high but as far as I can tell we have achieved a perfect 8/8. It is therefore settled – there should be no further debate on this subject and people should definitely not scrutinize my sources or synthesis of the data at all. Tekashi 6ix9ine is an autogynephile.
  TL;DR – literally the most blatant lowest hanging fruit possible
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'Autogynephilia has been debunked' debunk

http://annelawrence.com/autogynephilia.html
Men Trapped in Men's Bodies: Narratives of Autogynephilic Transsexualism The most comprehensive source of information about autogynephilia is not an article but my 2013 book.
Shame and Narcissistic Rage in Autogynephilic Transsexualism In PDF format; originally published in Archives of Sexual Behavior in 2008.
Becoming What We Love: Autogynephilic Transsexualism Conceptualized as an Expression of Romantic Love In PDF format; originally published in Perspectives in Biology and Medicine in 2007.
Autogynephilia: A Paraphilic Model of Gender Identity Disorder In PDF format; originally published in the Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy.

New MRI Studies Support the Blanchard Typology of Male-to-Female Transsexualism

Autogynephilia and the Typology of Male-to-Female Transsexualism

A Further Assessment of Blanchard’s Typology of Homosexual Versus Non-Homosexual or Autogynephilic Gender Dysphoria

Laughable attempt at making it look like women have AGP
Autogynephilia in women.

Critique of said dross
http://rodfleming.com/2018/05/01/mischievous-charles-mose

Extra reading
http://www.juliaserano.com/av/Serano-CaseAgainstAutogynephilia.pdf
Serano warning! Total frootloop and obviously a bloke
https://youtu.be/_1EdJ_XndU8
--Sexuality of male-to-female transsexuals (by Veale et al., 2008)
--A further assessment of Blanchard’s typology of homosexual versus non-homosexual or autogynephilic gender dysphoria
--Evidence Against a Typology: A Taxometric Analysis of the Sexuality of Male-to-Female Transsexuals (by Jaimie Veale, 2014)
http://www.transgression.com/Books/TheTranssexualDelusion/OnlineMaterial/AutogynephilicAddictionObjectiveTests.aspx?CountryISONumericCode=124&LanguageISOAlpha2Code=en
https://mirandayardley.com/en/a-history-of-autogynephilia/
Sexual Arousal Patterns of Autogynephilic Male Cross-Dressers
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10508-016-0826-z
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[RESOURCE] Debunking Autogynephilia/Blanchardianism

Take 2.0
NOTE: This is only version 2.0. I still have a bunch of resources I'm planning on using and incorporating into this piece

“Autogynephilia”

What is Autogynephilia and Blanchard’s Theory

Some interesting notes before we even dive into Blanchard’s theories: he believed all groups of ‘transsexuals’ should have access to transition as it improved their quality of life.
For reference, autogynephilia is part of a broader ‘transsexual’ typology created by Ray Blanchard in the 80s and 90s. It had two classes: “homosexual transsexuals” [HSTSs] (trans women who were attracted to men) and “autogynephilic transsexuals” (AGPTs) (trans women who were attracted to women). The idea was that these ‘autogynephilic transsexuals’ wanted to become women because of their ‘sexual desires’: arousal at the thought of oneself as a woman. According to Blanchard and co., HSTSs were feminine during childhood, realize they are trans at a young age, are exclusively attracted to men, while AGPTs were androgyny or masculine during childhood, are “later” transitioners and are attracted to women. Asexual trans women are considered ‘analloerotic’ and were classified as autogynephilic with the hypothesis that the autogynephilic urges are so strong as to overcome any sense of sexuality;
Analloerotic gender dysphorics represent those cases in which the autogynephilic disorder nullifies or overshadows any erotic attraction to women; those cases, in Hirschfeld's metaphor, in which "the woman within" completely supplants her fleshly rivals. Some analloerotics are most aroused by tangible symbols of their femininity, for example, changing into women's attire or putting on make-up. Others are most aroused by transsexual ideas, such as the thought of having women's breasts or a vagina. The feature common to all members of this group is their erotic self-sufficiency
Bisexual trans women are deemed ‘psuedo-bisexual’ because their sexual attraction to men is not like that of gay men. Their sexual attraction to men is supposedly limited to the motivation to be affirmed as a woman and “feel like a woman” by being penetrated;
Bisexual gender dysphorics represent those cases in which the autogynephilic disorder gives rise to some secondary erotic interest in men that coexists with the individual's basic attraction to women. Autogynephilia, as indicated above, may find expression in the fantasy of having intercourse, as a woman, with a man. · In bisexual gender dysphoria these fantasies are especially strong; they are therefore more likely to be actualized-or rather, approximated-with anal or oral intercourse substituting for vaginal-particularly with the bisexual gender dysphoric in partial or complete cross-dress (Benjamin, 1967; Person and Ovesey, 1974). The effective erotic stimulus in these interactions, however, is not the male physique of the partner, as it is in true homosexual attraction, but rather the thought of being a woman, which is symbolized in the fantasy of being penetrated by a man. For these persons, the male sexual partner serves the same function as women's apparel or make-up, namely, to aid and intensify the fantasy of being a woman.
Blanchard and co claim have claimed that autogynephilia is a fetish, a paraphilia, and later a sexual orientation over various periods of time. The framing of autogynephilia as a sexual orientation was to reconcile the wish of AGPTs to continue HRT and transition even when testosterone decreases because of HRT with the evidence about increased paraphilias with increased testosterone.
A succinct (yet in-depth) summary of each of his papers and overall paradigm can be found here on Madaline Wyndzen.

Facile Issues With His Theory

His theory fails to explain bisexual, asexual, pansexual or any non-heterosexual trans women, despite non-heterosexual trans people comprising a majority of the trans community. When a lesbian trans woman claims to exist, he states that they must be delusional, lying or denies their claims. His theory also completely ignores the existence of trans men.
Another important note:
Blanchard (1989a) proposed that an equivalent of autogynephilia—first termed by Dickey and Stephens (1995) as autoandrophilia—does not occur among birthassigned females. This is because Blanchard believed that a type of transsexualism analogous to autogynephilic transsexualism does not occur in birth-assigned females
He denies the existence of autoandrophilia, despite proposing it to the DSM.

Definitions: Constantly Shifting, Never Stable

One problem with debating autogynephilia-advocates and Blanchardians is that their definition of autogynephilia constantly shifts as include and exclude specific groups that best fit the theory. Autogynephilia shifts from meaning its etymology; the love of oneself as a woman, to be characterized and defined by cross-gender fetishism, crossdressing, to only be classified as autogynephilic if one has sufficient scores on Blanchard’s, and only Blanchard’s scales. Other times it’s explicitly defined as exclusive to ‘males’, a priori assuming arbitrary and mutually exclusive distinction between sexualities. Madaline Wyndzen talks about how Bailey uses the term

Debunkings Blanchard’s Claims, Theories and Hypotheses

Prewritten Criticisms, Critiques and Thrashings

Julia Serano has done some fantastic work on critiquing Blanchard’s research. She points out more recent studies contradicting key parts of Blanchard’s theories and exposes the severe methodological flaws in his research, as well as the common ‘correlation = causation’ fallacy all proponents of the theory fall under.
Moser’s critique shows the contradiction between Blanchard’s research and his claims, evidence that autogynephilia is neither a paraphila nor an orientation, provides evidence for autogynephilia in transgender individuals of all sexual orientations, and provides significant evidence to debunk the claim that transgender individuals with autogynephilia have a different motivation for transition and SRS. His research uses much of the data that Blanchard and co. collected themselves to derive completely different conclusions.
Contrapoint’s video goes over the theory from the perspective of trans individuals in a very in-depth manner.
Madeline Wyndzen has written quite a bit about Blanchard’s theories on her website genderpsychology.com, and has specifically pointed out problems here
This work looks at and critiques the more recent elaboration of Blanchard’s typology in The Man Who Would be Queen: The Science of Gender-Bending and Transsexualism by Michael Bailey. Zinnia Jones has a fantastic post breaking down a specific autogynephilia-advocate (Dreger)’s book; Galileo’s Middle Finger.

When His Own Data Debunks Him

From his 1985 study, he found that bisexual trans women had higher scores for androphilia than gynephilia, casting some doubt on whether his theory about psuedo-bisexual trans women is plausible.
One of Blanchard’s most noted papers is his 1989 paper supposedly “proving” that heterosexual, bisexual and asexual trans women have the same etiology. There’s a fatal error. Asexual trans women had autogynephilia scores that were almost a perfect midpoint between straight trans women and bisexual trans women (1.83 from straight and 1.88 from bisexual), and most importantly, he found that asexual trans women and bisexual trans women had a statistically significant difference in their autogynephilia scores, while asexual and lesbian trans women did not, and bisexual and lesbian trans women did not.

Shoddy Methodology, Lies and More

Blanchard’s 1984 study aimed at proving whether ‘heterosexual’ (lesbian) trans women were lying about a history of gross-gender fetishism has a number of issues. First is the lack of a control sex tape to compare the crossdressing scenes to. It is possible that participants were aroused because of the presence of something erotic, not specifically the crossdressing aspect. There was also no ‘homosexual’ (straight) control group which could show underreporting in that population as well. Furthermore, Blanchard erroneously equates erotic arousal to crossdressing (whether he showed this is dubious) with a history of crossdressing. Lastly, we come to the issues with phallometry; the methodology used to measure arousal.
Moser’s critique (page 9/797) furthers this point, eludicating the fact that Blanchard’s conclusions do not match his results, there are significant missing explanatonary factors that are not tested for, and an extremely small sample size for specific subgroups.
And Wyndzen illustrates a reinterpretation of the data that begets the opposite results
Veale and Wyndzen point out problems with Blanchard’s lack of controls for age;
In addition, many of the questionnaire items that Blanchard uses begin with “Have you ever…”. Given this format, it is probable that older persons answering the survey will be more likely to answer “yes”, simply because they have lived longer and are therefore more likely to have experienced a diversity of feelings, including autogynephilic feelings. This means their results may not be due to sexual orientation, but more an experience that TS who do not transition are more likely to experience as they get older (Wyndzen, 2003). Blanchard does not control for the effects of age in his studies, this is addressed in this study though.
.
Blanchard’s (1989b) hypothesis is that non-androphilic TSs sexual orientation is related to having sexual fantasies of being female; he tests this by comparing nonandrophilic TS to a control group of androphilic TS. However, Wyndzen (2003) points out that “what this control group fails to distinguish is the role of sexual orientation separate from gender incongruence, in predicting fantasies about being a woman” (Wyndzen, 2003). To ensure that BFs do not have such fantasies, this research includes a control group of BFs. The scales have been modified slightly so that they are appropriate for both groups to answer.
Furthermore there are a number of various other errors in the paper;
Sampling Errors. – The number of subjects with clinically diagnosed gender dysphoria is not provided, therefore some, or even all, of them are not relevant subjects for study. – It is not stated if any of the sample had transitioned, were in the process of transitioning or were considering transitioning. – Gender dysphoria was self diagnosed by the subjects and transsexuality was determined by a single question, thus not following WPATH or DSM diagnostic guidelines. – Low or sub-threshold self measured gender dysphoria subjects, and self admitted transvestites were included in the full sample for factor determination (30% of the sample).
Technical Statistical Analyses Errors – No tests for normality were undertaken, given the high Coefficients of Variation (CV) shown (the highest being 523%) non-normality should have been considered and tested for. – The core statistical test (Newman-Keuls) has a high ‘false positive’ rate, is not valid for varying sized sample data and not valid for non Gaussian data. – Sample sizes were averaged using the Harmonic Mean (most commonly used in financial analysis), no results or discussion was provided to justify why this was chosen in preference to other means or the impact on the Newman-Keuls test results or why another and valid test was not used.
Multiplying Hypotheses Errors. – Several additional hypotheses were introduced – Two of them showed Circular Categorisation Errors (AGP causes X, X is a factor in causing AGP).
Questionnaire Errors. – The questionnaires followed the Core Question, Sub Question design. While this is appropriate for detailed analysis, it leads to multiple counting and score inflation when used as a measurement scale. If the Core question is answered with a yes, then at least one other Sub question will automatically be answered with a yes as well. – No measures of intensity (frequency or recency of fantasies or actions) were used. – The core question (#12) in the Autogynephilic Interpersonal Fantasy Scale is incorrect, with a score being given for non interpersonal fantasy behaviour, thus the results would be inflated for this test
(Shamelessly stolen from a commenter on Zinnia Jones’ blog)
Moser also points out issues with Blanchard’s research;
Blanchard (1985a) created the Cross-Gender Fetishism Scale as a way of distinguishing autogynephilia, although that term had not been coined yet, from other types of cross-gender interests. A sample item is, “Have you ever felt sexually aroused when putting on women’s underwear, stockings or a nightgown?” (p. 243). All the items in this scale use the term “ever,” emphasizing that even one episode in the distant past factored into the score on this scale. The consistent use of “ever” in these scales is analogous to classifying someone as homosexual on the basis of a few episodes of arousal from same sex contact during a brief period, despite years of satisfying heterosexual experience, interest, and denial of subsequent homosexual experience or interest. Although some MTFs acknowledge ongoing autogynephilic arousal, many others deny this (Lawrence, 2004, 2005). Blanchard (1985b; Blanchard, Clemmensen, & Steiner, 1985) and Lawrence (2004, 2005, 2006) dismiss their denials and insist that they are still autogynephilic
As pointed out by Moser, Blanchard 1985 studies male gender patients, which he laters uses to extrapolate the results to trans women;
Blanchard, Clemmensen, and Steiner (1985) studied “adult male gender patients,” not all of whom were MTFs. They found a correlation between a tendency of the heterosexual sample to describe themselves in terms of moral excellence or admirable personal qualities (as measured by the Social Desirability Scale; Crowne & Marlowe, 1964) and the denial of autogynephilic interests; this correlation was not found in the homosexual sample. The authors argue that those most motivated to create a favorable impression are those most anxious for SRS and that these individuals emulate the presentation of classic (homosexual) transsexuals, who also usually deny a history of autogynephilic interests. Considering that Blanchard’s clinic did not discriminate against autogynephilic MTFs and heterosexual MTFs were an accepted transsexual subtype in the DSM-III (APA, 1980), it is not clear why these individuals would choose to falsify their history. Therefore, the motivation hypothesized by Blanchard, Clemmensen, and Steiner (1985) may not have been present.
And
The study by Blanchard. Clemmensen, and Steiner (1985) has methodological problems. The study did not compare homosexual and heterosexual MTFs, but homosexual MTFs to a mix of heterosexual MTFs and other types of male gender patients with less consistent cross-gender feelings. Only 69% of the heterosexual sample felt like women all the time for at least one year, which was the authors’ definition of a transsexual, versus 96% of the homosexual sample (Blanchard, Clemmensen, & Steiner, 1985). In the discussion, the authors suggested one explanation for their findings was “that heterosexual patients are genuinely more variable in their behavior and in their feelings ...” (p. 514). Grouping transsexuals with non-transsexuals seems likely to produce more variability in their behavior and feelings, in comparison to the more homogeneous homosexual MTF group
Wyndzen points out similar errors and a larger methodological error;
To classify participants as 'heterosexual' or 'homosexual', Blanchard used a scale from +14.13 (completely homosexual) to -31.40 (completely heterosexual). A participant was classified as 'homosexual' if their score was greater than 10. That is, only 9% of the possible scores a participant could get made them 'homosexual' according to Blanchard. 'Homosexuals' may only appear less diverse than 'heterosexuals' because they were chosen more selectively. That is, the results say little about transsexuals. Instead these results are likely an artifact of the way Blanchard et al (1995) chose participants and classified their sexual orientations.
All of Madeline Wyndzen’s work here has great methodological critiques and points out numerous scientific errors.

The Impossible Infallibility of Blanchardianism

Possibly the biggest issue with Blanchardianism is its infallibility - the inability to be falsified / proven false. This is a significant indicator of whether the theory is useful, applicable and whether it should be considered as a serious model in the way Blanchard proposes it is. Evidence that would challenge the existence of a two-type taxonomy is best exemplified by the existence of exceptions to the taxonomy; gynephilic, bisexual and asexual (non-”homosexual”/non-exclusively androphilic) trans women that do not report a history of cross-gender arousal and androphilic trans women that do. Blanchard has found that these people do, in fact, exist, but instead of realizing his model is fatally flawed, he decides to deem these trans women liars. If all exceptions to one’s theory are deemed mistaken or liars, there can be no evidence against the theory and it is unfalsifiable.

Recent Research

Exclusivity of AGP in Trans Women, Autogynephilia In Cis Women?

Research indicates that cisgender women can have ‘autogynephilia’.
By the common definition of ever having erotic arousal to the thought or image of oneself as a woman, 93% of the respondents would be classified as autogynephilic. Using a more rigorous definition of “frequent” arousal to multiple items, 28% would be classified as autogynephilic.
Note: This research is far from conclusive and has a number of flaws (there’s a Medium article on the topic, as well as Lawrence’s criticism [further see Moser’s defense], and more research on cis women and autogynephilia needs to be done, but it’s just one important indicator of the flaws behind Blanchard’s theory.
Veale’s study uses Blanchard’s original classification and found that a significant number of cis women have significant levels on Blanchard’s test, as Moser points out
It should also be noted that there is another article that has shown autogynephilia in natal women. Veale, Clarke, and Lomax (2008) studied a group of biological females who scored as autogynephilic on their variation of Blanchard’s autogynephilia scales. Lawrence and Bailey (2009) conveniently calculated mean scores for nonhomosexual (autogynephilic) MTFs from Blanchard’s (1989) data; they found the Core Autogynephilia Scale mean was 6.1 (range 0 to 9) and the Autogynephilia Interpersonal Fantasy scale was 2.7 (range 0 to 4); higher scores imply more autogynephilic arousal. On Veale et al.’s versions of these scales, 52% of the biological female subjects scored 6 or higher on the Core Autogynephilia Scale and 3 or higher on the Autogynephilia Interpersonal Fantasy Scale (J.F. Veale, personal communication, July 7, 2009). Lawrence and Bailey concluded that Veale et al.’s transsexual subjects who scored at these levels were autogynephilic. Therefore, they should conclude that Veale et al.’s biological female sample is also autogynephilic. This is another confirmation that autogynephilia is common in natal women
Assuming a normal distribution of AGP scores (for the sake of me not having to read another Blanchard study), 50% of the “nonhomosexual” / “autogynephilic” have scores below that of 6.1 and 2.7 on each scale respetively and 50% have scores above. This is comparable to the 52% of cis women who have scores higher than 6 and 3 on each scale, indicating an approximate equivalence of the prevalence of “autogynephilia” in both trans women and cis women.
Given that there are often very low standards for autogynephilia in trans women, it’s time we apply these to cis women.
A thread from /AskWomen seems up to Anne Lawrence’s evidentiary standards;
Is it true that "Women are often erotically aroused by dressing in lingerie and wearing makeup; women are erotically aroused by looking at themselves naked"?
Responses:
>yes for me
>I get aroused when wearing lingerie, but it's not the act of wearing the lingerie but the knowledge that I'm arousing my partner by wearing it.
Sounds eerily like ContraPoint’s experiences that would easily be classified as autogynephilic by any Blanchardianist standards
>I used to love looking at myself naked as a teenager, I had a wonderful body back then, I would use small mirrors to see various parts more closely, and yes it did turn me on. Sadly I'm not outwardly attractive to most men (I wasn't at all fat, just my hair and face I suppose, and I could never afford nice clothes) so no one else really got to share it with me.
>Personally, I am aroused by dressing up in revealing clothing, but not by wearing makeup. I am aroused by looking at myself naked, as well. I'm hot, I can't help it. ;)
Here’s a doctor documenting cis women being attracted to themselves; https://www.maxim.com/women/why-women-get-turned-on-by-themselves-2017-2
https://www.refinery29.com/2017/02/141054/turn-yourself-on-mirror-sex;
If you picture yourself while masturbating, you may be autosexual.
And given that a large number of cis women are determined to be autosexual, it’s reasonable to make the conclusion that masturbation to an image of oneself is somewhat prevalent among cis women. Now, now the Blanchardianist advocate might say, “trans women aren’t attracted to themsselves, they’re attracted to themselveas as women”. The problem here is that trans women don’t originally have the body of the archetypal woman, but rather one that is designated by society to be that of a man. If a trans women were to fantasize about her own body prior to transition, she would not be fantasizing about what she or society views as a woman’s body (there are exceptions). To distinguish between a trans woman’s fantasies and a cis woman’s fantasties based on the fact that trans women’s fantasies are not an “accurate” depiction of material reality ignores the mechanisms by which trans women experience their sexuality and the necessity to change bodies. In effect, this method erases trans women’s “transness”.
Another study shows that ‘highly sexual’ women wear sexy underwear even when they do not want to have sex, and upwards of 75% of women wear lingerie/sexy underwear over their lifetimes and 27.3% of women characterized the activity as ‘very appealing’.
(Thanks Jack Molay for some examples)
Angela Martinez Dy, in Bi, femme and beyond says;
In my earliest sexual fantasies I am naked onstage, dancing for a crowd of ogling, appreciative men. Since my dad was never around, I wanted the attention of men. But men were not the objects of my attention. When I was eight, I saw a comic strip that had a cartoon drawing of a woman on a stage unzipping the back of her gown. I knew it was naughty and I found it inviting. I had a habit of cutting out comics that I liked, so my mom did not find it unusual when I went for the scissors and snipped a square out of the Sunday paper. She did, however, sternly question me when she found the drawing on the counter in the bathroom. I had left it there by accident after bringing it in with me to the shower, where I used the massaging showerhead to give myself my first orgasms.
My first girl crushes trod a blurry line between wanting a woman, and wanting to be her. My favourite film was Dirty Dancing, because it starred not one but two of the first crushes I remember: Patrick Swayze as the strong but sensual dance instructor Johnny, and Cynthia Rhodes as the gorgeous and talented ex-Rockette, Penny, who turned heads and stopped hearts when she entered a room. I both admired and desired her. Since I spoke to no one of my feelings, there was no one who told me that my interest was wrong. My family assumed I watched it over and over because I liked the dancing.
Anecdotally, feminization fantasies have also been reported in cis women. http://juliaserano.blogspot.com/2011/08/whipping-girl-faq-submissive-streak.html
Lesbian women in general report more autosexual behavior

Exclusivity of Cross-Gender Fetishism and “Autogynephilia” Among Differential Groups of Transgender Individuals

One important founding for Blanchard’s theory is that the categories (typologies) are mutually exclusive and that traits are exclusive to each of the types. But, as numerous studies show, there are significant portions of straight trans women (“HSTSs”) that do have a history of cross-gender fetishism and lesbian trans women (“AGPTs”) that do not.
Indeed, Blanchard’s theories require absolute adherence;
All gender dysphoric males who are not sexually orient- ed toward men are instead sexually oriented toward the thought or image of themselves as women
From Veale’s Masters thesis we can see that there are significant exceptions. For example, the person with no attraction to females having the highest possible autogynephilia score.
If we look at Table 5 on page 66, we can also note an interesting result; sexual attraction to men was slightly positively correlated with core autogynephilia (but the effect size is very small and did not reject the null), indicating that transsexuals attracted to men can and do experience autogynephilia.
From Table 15 on page 79, we can compare scores for androphilic and gynephilic transsexuals and see how many androphilic transsexuals have significantly high autogynephilia scores.
The mean CAGP score for GTS was 25.52 and for ATS was 16.52, with STDs of 11.34 and 15.91 respectively. This means that 15.9% of ATS lie above 16.52+11.34=27.86. More than 15.9% of androphilic transsexuals have a higher autogynephilia score than the average gynephilic transsexual. This also means that 15.9% (from standard deviation definitions) of GTS lie below 25.52-11.34=14.18. More than 15.9% of gynephilic transsexuals have a lower autogynephilia score than the average androphilic transsexual.
From the discussion section;
However, going against Blanchard’s hypotheses, scales measuring autogynephilia were negatively correlated with asexuality, and not correlated with gynephilia.
She also notes previous relevant literature;
On the other hand, using Docter and Fleming’s (1992) questionnaire, McGrane (2001) found that androphilic and non-androphilic TS did not significantly differ on questionnaire items measuring cross-gender sexual arousal
And self-reported applicability of autogynephilia to ones experiences;
Once again sexual orientation did not appear to have much effect on whether TS participants identified as autogynephilic. Autogynephilic-identifying TS participants tended to report greater amounts of androphilia and lower amounts of asexuality than was expected considering Blanchard’s (1989b) findings. One possible explanation for this finding is more liberal attitudes towards homosexuality and bisexuality prevailing in today’s culture.
Table 17 on page 83 shows that significant numbers of androphilic trans women say autogynephilia describes their experiences.
The majority of participants did not think that the theory of autogynephilia applied to them, although 42.1% believed it did at least “a little bit”. Gynephilic TS were the the most likely subgroup to report applicability of autogynephilia to own experiences, although it was reported in participants in all of the sexuality subgroups. This finding challenges Blanchard’s (1989b) hypothesis that androphilic TS are not autogynephilic.
Veale et. al 2008 found another important result;
The average score of Sexual Attraction to Males was higher for transsexuals classified as autogynephilic than for transsexuals classified as non-autogynephilic, although this difference was not significant, this is at variance with Blanchard’s theory
Autogynephilic transsexuals report more attraction to men, not less.
One problem with Blanchard’s theoriest in regards to sexuality is that \

Asexuality as Autogynephilic

Blanchard claims that asexual trans women are autogynephilic, and do not form a distinct grouping from lesbian trans women;
Analloerotic gender dysphorics represent those cases in which the autogynephilic disorder nullifies or overshadows any erotic attraction to women; those cases, in Hirschfeld's metaphor, in which "the woman within" completely supplants her fleshly rivals. Some analloerotics are most aroused by tangible symbols of their femininity, for example, changing into women's attire or putting on make-up. Others are most aroused by transsexual ideas, such as the thought of having women's breasts or a vagina. The feature common to all members of this group is their erotic self-sufficiency
From Veale’s Master Thesis, when she performed Kruskal-Wallis tests and used age as a covariate, she did not find differences in asexuality between autogynephilic and non-autogynephilic transsexuals;
However, when age was included in the calculation as a covariate, significant differences were not found for number of biological children, asexuality, Attraction to Male Physique, and emotional jealousy; and significant differences were found for Attraction to Feminine Males.
Table 15 on page 79 finds a lower Core Autogynephilia and Autogynephilic Interpersonal score for asexual transsexuals than androphilic transsexuals
Her 2008 study found more relevant results;
Finally, among the transsexuals classified as autogynephilic, none scored low scores (from 0 to 2 on a scale of 0 to 4) on both the Sexual Attraction to Males and Females scales that would be expected if they were asexual–one of the sexuality subgroups of Blanchard’s autogynephilic transsexuals
.
However, those transsexuals classified as autogynephilic scored higher on average on Sexual Attraction to Males than those classified as non-autogynephilic, and no transsexuals classified as autogynephilic reported asexuality–in contrast to Blanchard’s theory.

Traits That Differentiate

One of Blanchard’s most oft-repeated and used findings is that there are significant differences between the supposed subgroups of trans women. Among this list is masochism (Lawrence, Blanchard, Lawrence, Bailey), recalled feminine gender identity, age of presentation (discovering gender identity) (Blanchard. The problem is that most, do not replicate.
For masochism (from Veale’s Masters Thesis);
For Masochism, post hoc Bonferroni tests showed that, with alpha at .01, means for TS subgroups formed homogenous subsets, and means for BF formed their own subsets with significantly higher means
Recalled feminine gender identity was not significantly related with autogynephilia;
Veale 2008;
Table 2 on page 13 shows nearly identical values for recalled feminine gender identity for AGPTs and non-AGPTs
Recalled Feminine Gender Identity was not related to Autogynephilia variables for transsexual or biological female participants.
(See values in table 3)
Masters;
From Table 5 on page 66, r=-0.6 for relationship between core autogynephilia and recalled gender identity
Using Recalled Gender Identity and Preference for Younger Partners as the dependent variables, post hoc Bonferroni tests showed that, with alpha at .01, means for TS subgroups formed homogenous subsets, and means for BF formed their own subsets with significantly lower means on both of the variables

Psuedo-Bisexuality

As we explored above, Blanchard thought that bisexual trans women were not ‘truly bisexual’, and instead formed a ‘psuedo-bisexual’ sexuality where attraction to men was to affirm their gender as woman; bisexual trans women have sex with men not because they are attracted to men, but because it’s a fetish, it makes them feel like women. His supporting evidence and hypotheses involve the relationship between autogynephilic interpersonal fantasy (a scale he developed) and the lack of attraction to the male physique among bisexual trans women.
From Veale 2008
Finally, in testing Blanchard’s hypothesis that bisexual autogynephilic transsexuals are not attracted to the male physique, we found among transsexual participants classified as autogynephilic in the cluster analysis described above, Attraction to Male Physique correlated significantly positively with Sexual Attraction to Males (ρ = .65, p < .01), and this correlation was comparable to non-autogynephilic transsexuals (ρ = .65) and biological females (ρ = .64).
From the Masters Thesis;
Table 15 on page 79 shows that androphilic, gynephilic and bisexual trans women do not have that different autogynephilic interpersonal scores. Furthermore, if higher autogynephilic interpersonal scores are evidence of psuedo-bisexuality, then cis bisexual women are also psuedo-bisexuals (and given that Blanchard’s inheritors assert that bisexual men are also psuedo-bisexuals, it veers awfully close to the claim that bisexual people do not exist or a self-destruction conclusion that manifestation of bisexuality does not differ significantly by gender identity)
Using Autogynephilic Interpersonal Fantasy, a post hoc Bonferroni test showed that the adjusted mean for asexual participants formed its own subset; the adjusted means for androphilic and gynephilic participants formed a homogenous subset with higher means; and the adjusted means for androphilic and bisexual participants formed a third homogenous subset with a higher mean. The adjusted mean for asexual participants was significantly lower than the adjusted means for the other three sexual orientation subgroups. The adjusted mean for gynephilic participants was significantly lower than the adjusted mean for bisexual participants.
Furthermore, she found that attraction to the male physique was significantly correlated with bisexuality among trans women (Table 5 on Page 66). Table 15 on page 79 indicates that the attraction to male physique among trans women is significantly higher than that of asexual and gynephilic trans women, and is closest to that of androphilic trans women.
Continued in comments because this go too long.
submitted by musicotic to asktransgender [link] [comments]

Autogynephilia Myths Version 2.0

“Autogynephilia”

What is Autogynephilia and Blanchard’s Theory

Some interesting notes before we even dive into Blanchard’s theories: he believed all groups of ‘transsexuals’ should have access to transition as it improved their quality of life.
For reference, autogynephilia is part of a broader ‘transsexual’ typology created by Ray Blanchard in the 80s and 90s. It had two classes: “homosexual transsexuals” [HSTSs] (trans women who were attracted to men) and “autogynephilic transsexuals” (AGPTs) (trans women who were attracted to women). The idea was that these ‘autogynephilic transsexuals’ wanted to become women because of their ‘sexual desires’: arousal at the thought of oneself as a woman. According to Blanchard and co., HSTSs were feminine during childhood, realize they are trans at a young age, are exclusively attracted to men, while AGPTs were androgyny or masculine during childhood, are “later” transitioners and are attracted to women. Asexual trans women are considered ‘analloerotic’ and were classified as autogynephilic with the hypothesis that the autogynephilic urges are so strong as to overcome any sense of sexuality;
Analloerotic gender dysphorics represent those cases in which the autogynephilic disorder nullifies or overshadows any erotic attraction to women; those cases, in Hirschfeld's metaphor, in which "the woman within" completely supplants her fleshly rivals. Some analloerotics are most aroused by tangible symbols of their femininity, for example, changing into women's attire or putting on make-up. Others are most aroused by transsexual ideas, such as the thought of having women's breasts or a vagina. The feature common to all members of this group is their erotic self-sufficiency
Bisexual trans women are deemed ‘psuedo-bisexual’ because their sexual attraction to men is not like that of gay men. Their sexual attraction to men is supposedly limited to the motivation to be affirmed as a woman and “feel like a woman” by being penetrated;
Bisexual gender dysphorics represent those cases in which the autogynephilic disorder gives rise to some secondary erotic interest in men that coexists with the individual's basic attraction to women. Autogynephilia, as indicated above, may find expression in the fantasy of having intercourse, as a woman, with a man. · In bisexual gender dysphoria these fantasies are especially strong; they are therefore more likely to be actualized-or rather, approximated-with anal or oral intercourse substituting for vaginal-particularly with the bisexual gender dysphoric in partial or complete cross-dress (Benjamin, 1967; Person and Ovesey, 1974). The effective erotic stimulus in these interactions, however, is not the male physique of the partner, as it is in true homosexual attraction, but rather the thought of being a woman, which is symbolized in the fantasy of being penetrated by a man. For these persons, the male sexual partner serves the same function as women's apparel or make-up, namely, to aid and intensify the fantasy of being a woman.
Blanchard and co claim have claimed that autogynephilia is a fetish, a paraphilia, and later a sexual orientation over various periods of time. The framing of autogynephilia as a sexual orientation was to reconcile the wish of AGPTs to continue HRT and transition even when testosterone decreases because of HRT with the evidence about increased paraphilias with increased testosterone.
A succinct (yet in-depth) summary of each of his papers and overall paradigm can be found here on Madaline Wyndzen.

Facile Issues With His Theory

His theory fails to explain bisexual, asexual, pansexual or any non-heterosexual trans women, despite non-heterosexual trans people comprising a majority of the trans community. When a lesbian trans woman claims to exist, he states that they must be delusional, lying or denies their claims. His theory also completely ignores the existence of trans men.
Another important note:
Blanchard (1989a) proposed that an equivalent of autogynephilia—first termed by Dickey and Stephens (1995) as autoandrophilia—does not occur among birthassigned females. This is because Blanchard believed that a type of transsexualism analogous to autogynephilic transsexualism does not occur in birth-assigned females
He denies the existence of autoandrophilia, despite proposing it to the DSM.

Definitions: Constantly Shifting, Never Stable

One problem with debating autogynephilia-advocates and Blanchardians is that their definition of autogynephilia constantly shifts as include and exclude specific groups that best fit the theory. Autogynephilia shifts from meaning its etymology; the love of oneself as a woman, to be characterized and defined by cross-gender fetishism, crossdressing, to only be classified as autogynephilic if one has sufficient scores on Blanchard’s, and only Blanchard’s scales. Other times it’s explicitly defined as exclusive to ‘males’, a priori assuming arbitrary and mutually exclusive distinction between sexualities. Madaline Wyndzen talks about how Bailey uses the term

Debunkings Blanchard’s Claims, Theories and Hypotheses

Prewritten Criticisms, Critiques and Thrashings

Julia Serano has done some fantastic work on critiquing Blanchard’s research. She points out more recent studies contradicting key parts of Blanchard’s theories and exposes the severe methodological flaws in his research, as well as the common ‘correlation = causation’ fallacy all proponents of the theory fall under.
Moser’s critique shows the contradiction between Blanchard’s research and his claims, evidence that autogynephilia is neither a paraphila nor an orientation, provides evidence for autogynephilia in transgender individuals of all sexual orientations, and provides significant evidence to debunk the claim that transgender individuals with autogynephilia have a different motivation for transition and SRS. His research uses much of the data that Blanchard and co. collected themselves to derive completely different conclusions.
Contrapoint’s video goes over the theory from the perspective of trans individuals in a very in-depth manner.
Madeline Wyndzen has written quite a bit about Blanchard’s theories on her website genderpsychology.com, and has specifically pointed out problems here
This work looks at and critiques the more recent elaboration of Blanchard’s typology in The Man Who Would be Queen: The Science of Gender-Bending and Transsexualism by Michael Bailey. Zinnia Jones has a fantastic post breaking down a specific autogynephilia-advocate (Dreger)’s book; Galileo’s Middle Finger.

When His Own Data Debunks Him

From his 1985 study, he found that bisexual trans women had higher scores for androphilia than gynephilia, casting some doubt on whether his theory about psuedo-bisexual trans women is plausible.
One of Blanchard’s most noted papers is his 1989 paper supposedly “proving” that heterosexual, bisexual and asexual trans women have the same etiology. There’s a fatal error. Asexual trans women had autogynephilia scores that were almost a perfect midpoint between straight trans women and bisexual trans women (1.83 from straight and 1.88 from bisexual), and most importantly, he found that asexual trans women and bisexual trans women had a statistically significant difference in their autogynephilia scores, while asexual and lesbian trans women did not, and bisexual and lesbian trans women did not.

Shoddy Methodology, Lies and More

Blanchard’s 1984 study aimed at proving whether ‘heterosexual’ (lesbian) trans women were lying about a history of gross-gender fetishism has a number of issues. First is the lack of a control sex tape to compare the crossdressing scenes to. It is possible that participants were aroused because of the presence of something erotic, not specifically the crossdressing aspect. There was also no ‘homosexual’ (straight) control group which could show underreporting in that population as well. Furthermore, Blanchard erroneously equates erotic arousal to crossdressing (whether he showed this is dubious) with a history of crossdressing. Lastly, we come to the issues with phallometry; the methodology used to measure arousal.
Moser’s critique (page 9/797) furthers this point, eludicating the fact that Blanchard’s conclusions do not match his results, there are significant missing explanatonary factors that are not tested for, and an extremely small sample size for specific subgroups.
And Wyndzen illustrates a reinterpretation of the data that begets the opposite results
Veale and Wyndzen point out problems with Blanchard’s lack of controls for age;
In addition, many of the questionnaire items that Blanchard uses begin with “Have you ever…”. Given this format, it is probable that older persons answering the survey will be more likely to answer “yes”, simply because they have lived longer and are therefore more likely to have experienced a diversity of feelings, including autogynephilic feelings. This means their results may not be due to sexual orientation, but more an experience that TS who do not transition are more likely to experience as they get older (Wyndzen, 2003). Blanchard does not control for the effects of age in his studies, this is addressed in this study though.
.
Blanchard’s (1989b) hypothesis is that non-androphilic TSs sexual orientation is related to having sexual fantasies of being female; he tests this by comparing nonandrophilic TS to a control group of androphilic TS. However, Wyndzen (2003) points out that “what this control group fails to distinguish is the role of sexual orientation separate from gender incongruence, in predicting fantasies about being a woman” (Wyndzen, 2003). To ensure that BFs do not have such fantasies, this research includes a control group of BFs. The scales have been modified slightly so that they are appropriate for both groups to answer.
Furthermore there are a number of various other errors in the paper;
Sampling Errors. – The number of subjects with clinically diagnosed gender dysphoria is not provided, therefore some, or even all, of them are not relevant subjects for study. – It is not stated if any of the sample had transitioned, were in the process of transitioning or were considering transitioning. – Gender dysphoria was self diagnosed by the subjects and transsexuality was determined by a single question, thus not following WPATH or DSM diagnostic guidelines. – Low or sub-threshold self measured gender dysphoria subjects, and self admitted transvestites were included in the full sample for factor determination (30% of the sample).
Technical Statistical Analyses Errors – No tests for normality were undertaken, given the high Coefficients of Variation (CV) shown (the highest being 523%) non-normality should have been considered and tested for. – The core statistical test (Newman-Keuls) has a high ‘false positive’ rate, is not valid for varying sized sample data and not valid for non Gaussian data. – Sample sizes were averaged using the Harmonic Mean (most commonly used in financial analysis), no results or discussion was provided to justify why this was chosen in preference to other means or the impact on the Newman-Keuls test results or why another and valid test was not used.
Multiplying Hypotheses Errors. – Several additional hypotheses were introduced – Two of them showed Circular Categorisation Errors (AGP causes X, X is a factor in causing AGP).
Questionnaire Errors. – The questionnaires followed the Core Question, Sub Question design. While this is appropriate for detailed analysis, it leads to multiple counting and score inflation when used as a measurement scale. If the Core question is answered with a yes, then at least one other Sub question will automatically be answered with a yes as well. – No measures of intensity (frequency or recency of fantasies or actions) were used. – The core question (#12) in the Autogynephilic Interpersonal Fantasy Scale is incorrect, with a score being given for non interpersonal fantasy behaviour, thus the results would be inflated for this test
(Shamelessly stolen from a commenter on Zinnia Jones’ blog)
Moser also points out issues with Blanchard’s research;
Blanchard (1985a) created the Cross-Gender Fetishism Scale as a way of distinguishing autogynephilia, although that term had not been coined yet, from other types of cross-gender interests. A sample item is, “Have you ever felt sexually aroused when putting on women’s underwear, stockings or a nightgown?” (p. 243). All the items in this scale use the term “ever,” emphasizing that even one episode in the distant past factored into the score on this scale. The consistent use of “ever” in these scales is analogous to classifying someone as homosexual on the basis of a few episodes of arousal from same sex contact during a brief period, despite years of satisfying heterosexual experience, interest, and denial of subsequent homosexual experience or interest. Although some MTFs acknowledge ongoing autogynephilic arousal, many others deny this (Lawrence, 2004, 2005). Blanchard (1985b; Blanchard, Clemmensen, & Steiner, 1985) and Lawrence (2004, 2005, 2006) dismiss their denials and insist that they are still autogynephilic
As pointed out by Moser, Blanchard 1985 studies male gender patients, which he laters uses to extrapolate the results to trans women;
Blanchard, Clemmensen, and Steiner (1985) studied “adult male gender patients,” not all of whom were MTFs. They found a correlation between a tendency of the heterosexual sample to describe themselves in terms of moral excellence or admirable personal qualities (as measured by the Social Desirability Scale; Crowne & Marlowe, 1964) and the denial of autogynephilic interests; this correlation was not found in the homosexual sample. The authors argue that those most motivated to create a favorable impression are those most anxious for SRS and that these individuals emulate the presentation of classic (homosexual) transsexuals, who also usually deny a history of autogynephilic interests. Considering that Blanchard’s clinic did not discriminate against autogynephilic MTFs and heterosexual MTFs were an accepted transsexual subtype in the DSM-III (APA, 1980), it is not clear why these individuals would choose to falsify their history. Therefore, the motivation hypothesized by Blanchard, Clemmensen, and Steiner (1985) may not have been present.
And
The study by Blanchard. Clemmensen, and Steiner (1985) has methodological problems. The study did not compare homosexual and heterosexual MTFs, but homosexual MTFs to a mix of heterosexual MTFs and other types of male gender patients with less consistent cross-gender feelings. Only 69% of the heterosexual sample felt like women all the time for at least one year, which was the authors’ definition of a transsexual, versus 96% of the homosexual sample (Blanchard, Clemmensen, & Steiner, 1985). In the discussion, the authors suggested one explanation for their findings was “that heterosexual patients are genuinely more variable in their behavior and in their feelings ...” (p. 514). Grouping transsexuals with non-transsexuals seems likely to produce more variability in their behavior and feelings, in comparison to the more homogeneous homosexual MTF group
Wyndzen points out similar errors and a larger methodological error;
To classify participants as 'heterosexual' or 'homosexual', Blanchard used a scale from +14.13 (completely homosexual) to -31.40 (completely heterosexual). A participant was classified as 'homosexual' if their score was greater than 10. That is, only 9% of the possible scores a participant could get made them 'homosexual' according to Blanchard. 'Homosexuals' may only appear less diverse than 'heterosexuals' because they were chosen more selectively. That is, the results say little about transsexuals. Instead these results are likely an artifact of the way Blanchard et al (1995) chose participants and classified their sexual orientations.
All of Madeline Wyndzen’s work here has great methodological critiques and points out numerous scientific errors.

The Impossible Infallibility of Blanchardianism

Possibly the biggest issue with Blanchardianism is its infallibility - the inability to be falsified / proven false. This is a significant indicator of whether the theory is useful, applicable and whether it should be considered as a serious model in the way Blanchard proposes it is. Evidence that would challenge the existence of a two-type taxonomy is best exemplified by the existence of exceptions to the taxonomy; gynephilic, bisexual and asexual (non-”homosexual”/non-exclusively androphilic) trans women that do not report a history of cross-gender arousal and androphilic trans women that do. Blanchard has found that these people do, in fact, exist, but instead of realizing his model is fatally flawed, he decides to deem these trans women liars. If all exceptions to one’s theory are deemed mistaken or liars, there can be no evidence against the theory and it is unfalsifiable.

Recent Research

Exclusivity of AGP in Trans Women, Autogynephilia In Cis Women?

Research indicates that cisgender women can have ‘autogynephilia’.
By the common definition of ever having erotic arousal to the thought or image of oneself as a woman, 93% of the respondents would be classified as autogynephilic. Using a more rigorous definition of “frequent” arousal to multiple items, 28% would be classified as autogynephilic.
Note: This research is far from conclusive and has a number of flaws (there’s a Medium article on the topic, as well as Lawrence’s criticism [further see Moser’s defense], and more research on cis women and autogynephilia needs to be done, but it’s just one important indicator of the flaws behind Blanchard’s theory.
Veale’s study uses Blanchard’s original classification and found that a significant number of cis women have significant levels on Blanchard’s test, as Moser points out
It should also be noted that there is another article that has shown autogynephilia in natal women. Veale, Clarke, and Lomax (2008) studied a group of biological females who scored as autogynephilic on their variation of Blanchard’s autogynephilia scales. Lawrence and Bailey (2009) conveniently calculated mean scores for nonhomosexual (autogynephilic) MTFs from Blanchard’s (1989) data; they found the Core Autogynephilia Scale mean was 6.1 (range 0 to 9) and the Autogynephilia Interpersonal Fantasy scale was 2.7 (range 0 to 4); higher scores imply more autogynephilic arousal. On Veale et al.’s versions of these scales, 52% of the biological female subjects scored 6 or higher on the Core Autogynephilia Scale and 3 or higher on the Autogynephilia Interpersonal Fantasy Scale (J.F. Veale, personal communication, July 7, 2009). Lawrence and Bailey concluded that Veale et al.’s transsexual subjects who scored at these levels were autogynephilic. Therefore, they should conclude that Veale et al.’s biological female sample is also autogynephilic. This is another confirmation that autogynephilia is common in natal women
Assuming a normal distribution of AGP scores (for the sake of me not having to read another Blanchard study), 50% of the “nonhomosexual” / “autogynephilic” have scores below that of 6.1 and 2.7 on each scale respetively and 50% have scores above. This is comparable to the 52% of cis women who have scores higher than 6 and 3 on each scale, indicating an approximate equivalence of the prevalence of “autogynephilia” in both trans women and cis women.
Given that there are often very low standards for autogynephilia in trans women, it’s time we apply these to cis women.
A thread from /AskWomen seems up to Anne Lawrence’s evidentiary standards;
Is it true that "Women are often erotically aroused by dressing in lingerie and wearing makeup; women are erotically aroused by looking at themselves naked"?
Responses:
>yes for me
>I get aroused when wearing lingerie, but it's not the act of wearing the lingerie but the knowledge that I'm arousing my partner by wearing it.
Sounds eerily like ContraPoint’s experiences that would easily be classified as autogynephilic by any Blanchardianist standards
>I used to love looking at myself naked as a teenager, I had a wonderful body back then, I would use small mirrors to see various parts more closely, and yes it did turn me on. Sadly I'm not outwardly attractive to most men (I wasn't at all fat, just my hair and face I suppose, and I could never afford nice clothes) so no one else really got to share it with me.
>Personally, I am aroused by dressing up in revealing clothing, but not by wearing makeup. I am aroused by looking at myself naked, as well. I'm hot, I can't help it. ;)
Here’s a doctor documenting cis women being attracted to themselves; https://www.maxim.com/women/why-women-get-turned-on-by-themselves-2017-2
https://www.refinery29.com/2017/02/141054/turn-yourself-on-mirror-sex;
If you picture yourself while masturbating, you may be autosexual.
And given that a large number of cis women are determined to be autosexual, it’s reasonable to make the conclusion that masturbation to an image of oneself is somewhat prevalent among cis women. Now, now the Blanchardianist advocate might say, “trans women aren’t attracted to themsselves, they’re attracted to themselveas as women”. The problem here is that trans women don’t originally have the body of the archetypal woman, but rather one that is designated by society to be that of a man. If a trans women were to fantasize about her own body prior to transition, she would not be fantasizing about what she or society views as a woman’s body (there are exceptions). To distinguish between a trans woman’s fantasies and a cis woman’s fantasties based on the fact that trans women’s fantasies are not an “accurate” depiction of material reality ignores the mechanisms by which trans women experience their sexuality and the necessity to change bodies. In effect, this method erases trans women’s “transness”.
Another study shows that ‘highly sexual’ women wear sexy underwear even when they do not want to have sex, and upwards of 75% of women wear lingerie/sexy underwear over their lifetimes and 27.3% of women characterized the activity as ‘very appealing’.
(Thanks Jack Molay for some examples)
Angela Martinez Dy, in Bi, femme and beyond says;
In my earliest sexual fantasies I am naked onstage, dancing for a crowd of ogling, appreciative men. Since my dad was never around, I wanted the attention of men. But men were not the objects of my attention. When I was eight, I saw a comic strip that had a cartoon drawing of a woman on a stage unzipping the back of her gown. I knew it was naughty and I found it inviting. I had a habit of cutting out comics that I liked, so my mom did not find it unusual when I went for the scissors and snipped a square out of the Sunday paper. She did, however, sternly question me when she found the drawing on the counter in the bathroom. I had left it there by accident after bringing it in with me to the shower, where I used the massaging showerhead to give myself my first orgasms.
My first girl crushes trod a blurry line between wanting a woman, and wanting to be her. My favourite film was Dirty Dancing, because it starred not one but two of the first crushes I remember: Patrick Swayze as the strong but sensual dance instructor Johnny, and Cynthia Rhodes as the gorgeous and talented ex-Rockette, Penny, who turned heads and stopped hearts when she entered a room. I both admired and desired her. Since I spoke to no one of my feelings, there was no one who told me that my interest was wrong. My family assumed I watched it over and over because I liked the dancing.
Anecdotally, feminization fantasies have also been reported in cis women. http://juliaserano.blogspot.com/2011/08/whipping-girl-faq-submissive-streak.html
Lesbian women in general report more autosexual behavior

Exclusivity of Cross-Gender Fetishism and “Autogynephilia” Among Differential Groups of Transgender Individuals

One important founding for Blanchard’s theory is that the categories (typologies) are mutually exclusive and that traits are exclusive to each of the types. But, as numerous studies show, there are significant portions of straight trans women (“HSTSs”) that do have a history of cross-gender fetishism and lesbian trans women (“AGPTs”) that do not.
Indeed, Blanchard’s theories require absolute adherence;
All gender dysphoric males who are not sexually orient- ed toward men are instead sexually oriented toward the thought or image of themselves as women
From Veale’s Masters thesis we can see that there are significant exceptions. For example, the person with no attraction to females having the highest possible autogynephilia score.
If we look at Table 5 on page 66, we can also note an interesting result; sexual attraction to men was slightly positively correlated with core autogynephilia (but the effect size is very small and did not reject the null), indicating that transsexuals attracted to men can and do experience autogynephilia.
From Table 15 on page 79, we can compare scores for androphilic and gynephilic transsexuals and see how many androphilic transsexuals have significantly high autogynephilia scores.
The mean CAGP score for GTS was 25.52 and for ATS was 16.52, with STDs of 11.34 and 15.91 respectively. This means that 15.9% of ATS lie above 16.52+11.34=27.86. More than 15.9% of androphilic transsexuals have a higher autogynephilia score than the average gynephilic transsexual. This also means that 15.9% (from standard deviation definitions) of GTS lie below 25.52-11.34=14.18. More than 15.9% of gynephilic transsexuals have a lower autogynephilia score than the average androphilic transsexual.
From the discussion section;
However, going against Blanchard’s hypotheses, scales measuring autogynephilia were negatively correlated with asexuality, and not correlated with gynephilia.
She also notes previous relevant literature;
On the other hand, using Docter and Fleming’s (1992) questionnaire, McGrane (2001) found that androphilic and non-androphilic TS did not significantly differ on questionnaire items measuring cross-gender sexual arousal
And self-reported applicability of autogynephilia to ones experiences;
Once again sexual orientation did not appear to have much effect on whether TS participants identified as autogynephilic. Autogynephilic-identifying TS participants tended to report greater amounts of androphilia and lower amounts of asexuality than was expected considering Blanchard’s (1989b) findings. One possible explanation for this finding is more liberal attitudes towards homosexuality and bisexuality prevailing in today’s culture.
Table 17 on page 83 shows that significant numbers of androphilic trans women say autogynephilia describes their experiences.
The majority of participants did not think that the theory of autogynephilia applied to them, although 42.1% believed it did at least “a little bit”. Gynephilic TS were the the most likely subgroup to report applicability of autogynephilia to own experiences, although it was reported in participants in all of the sexuality subgroups. This finding challenges Blanchard’s (1989b) hypothesis that androphilic TS are not autogynephilic.
Veale et. al 2008 found another important result;
The average score of Sexual Attraction to Males was higher for transsexuals classified as autogynephilic than for transsexuals classified as non-autogynephilic, although this difference was not significant, this is at variance with Blanchard’s theory
Autogynephilic transsexuals report more attraction to men, not less.
One problem with Blanchard’s theoriest in regards to sexuality is that \

Asexuality as Autogynephilic

Blanchard claims that asexual trans women are autogynephilic, and do not form a distinct grouping from lesbian trans women;
Analloerotic gender dysphorics represent those cases in which the autogynephilic disorder nullifies or overshadows any erotic attraction to women; those cases, in Hirschfeld's metaphor, in which "the woman within" completely supplants her fleshly rivals. Some analloerotics are most aroused by tangible symbols of their femininity, for example, changing into women's attire or putting on make-up. Others are most aroused by transsexual ideas, such as the thought of having women's breasts or a vagina. The feature common to all members of this group is their erotic self-sufficiency
From Veale’s Master Thesis, when she performed Kruskal-Wallis tests and used age as a covariate, she did not find differences in asexuality between autogynephilic and non-autogynephilic transsexuals;
However, when age was included in the calculation as a covariate, significant differences were not found for number of biological children, asexuality, Attraction to Male Physique, and emotional jealousy; and significant differences were found for Attraction to Feminine Males.
Table 15 on page 79 finds a lower Core Autogynephilia and Autogynephilic Interpersonal score for asexual transsexuals than androphilic transsexuals
Her 2008 study found more relevant results;
Finally, among the transsexuals classified as autogynephilic, none scored low scores (from 0 to 2 on a scale of 0 to 4) on both the Sexual Attraction to Males and Females scales that would be expected if they were asexual–one of the sexuality subgroups of Blanchard’s autogynephilic transsexuals
.
However, those transsexuals classified as autogynephilic scored higher on average on Sexual Attraction to Males than those classified as non-autogynephilic, and no transsexuals classified as autogynephilic reported asexuality–in contrast to Blanchard’s theory.

Traits That Differentiate

One of Blanchard’s most oft-repeated and used findings is that there are significant differences between the supposed subgroups of trans women. Among this list is masochism (Lawrence, Blanchard, Lawrence, Bailey), recalled feminine gender identity, age of presentation (discovering gender identity) (Blanchard. The problem is that most, do not replicate.
For masochism (from Veale’s Masters Thesis);
For Masochism, post hoc Bonferroni tests showed that, with alpha at .01, means for TS subgroups formed homogenous subsets, and means for BF formed their own subsets with significantly higher means
Recalled feminine gender identity was not significantly related with autogynephilia;
Veale 2008;
Table 2 on page 13 shows nearly identical values for recalled feminine gender identity for AGPTs and non-AGPTs
Recalled Feminine Gender Identity was not related to Autogynephilia variables for transsexual or biological female participants.
(See values in table 3)
Masters;
From Table 5 on page 66, r=-0.6 for relationship between core autogynephilia and recalled gender identity
Using Recalled Gender Identity and Preference for Younger Partners as the dependent variables, post hoc Bonferroni tests showed that, with alpha at .01, means for TS subgroups formed homogenous subsets, and means for BF formed their own subsets with significantly lower means on both of the variables

Psuedo-Bisexuality

As we explored above, Blanchard thought that bisexual trans women were not ‘truly bisexual’, and instead formed a ‘psuedo-bisexual’ sexuality where attraction to men was to affirm their gender as woman; bisexual trans women have sex with men not because they are attracted to men, but because it’s a fetish, it makes them feel like women. His supporting evidence and hypotheses involve the relationship between autogynephilic interpersonal fantasy (a scale he developed) and the lack of attraction to the male physique among bisexual trans women.
From Veale 2008
Finally, in testing Blanchard’s hypothesis that bisexual autogynephilic transsexuals are not attracted to the male physique, we found among transsexual participants classified as autogynephilic in the cluster analysis described above, Attraction to Male Physique correlated significantly positively with Sexual Attraction to Males (ρ = .65, p < .01), and this correlation was comparable to non-autogynephilic transsexuals (ρ = .65) and biological females (ρ = .64).
From the Masters Thesis;
Table 15 on page 79 shows that androphilic, gynephilic and bisexual trans women do not have that different autogynephilic interpersonal scores. Furthermore, if higher autogynephilic interpersonal scores are evidence of psuedo-bisexuality, then cis bisexual women are also psuedo-bisexuals (and given that Blanchard’s inheritors assert that bisexual men are also psuedo-bisexuals, it veers awfully close to the claim that bisexual people do not exist or a self-destruction conclusion that manifestation of bisexuality does not differ significantly by gender identity)
Using Autogynephilic Interpersonal Fantasy, a post hoc Bonferroni test showed that the adjusted mean for asexual participants formed its own subset; the adjusted means for androphilic and gynephilic participants formed a homogenous subset with higher means; and the adjusted means for androphilic and bisexual participants formed a third homogenous subset with a higher mean. The adjusted mean for asexual participants was significantly lower than the adjusted means for the other three sexual orientation subgroups. The adjusted mean for gynephilic participants was significantly lower than the adjusted mean for bisexual participants.
Furthermore, she found that attraction to the male physique was significantly correlated with bisexuality among trans women (Table 5 on Page 66). Table 15 on page 79 indicates that the attraction to male physique among trans women is significantly higher than that of asexual and gynephilic trans women, and is closest to that of androphilic trans women.
Continued in comments
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Archives for https://www.reddit.com/r/Drama/comments/ad61h6/tekashi_6ix9ine_anime_and_crossdressing_autism/

Don't even try to kinkshame me. My kinks are my business.
Snapshots:
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I am a bot. (Info / Contact)
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[Predictions Thread] 2018 Women's Volta Limburg Classic

[The Extra Reddit Fantasy League]
Women's Volta Limburg Classic
Submissions will have to be formatted like this otherwise the bot won't pick it up:
* (x2.0) Rider 1 etc. * (x1.8) * (x1.6) * (x1.4) * (x1.2) * (x1.0) * (x1.0) * (x1.0) 
Please arrange your comments like the list above (you can make bullets with the * key). Please include both the first and last name of the riders!
Deadline
The deadline will be when the race starts on March 31 at 12.30 local time (UTC +1). Here's a handy timezone converter for you.
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Arizona election + voting megathread

This is the discussion thread for the election and probably the next few days depending on how things go. In an effort to try and keep all the discussion together and stop the same comments from being made over and over in new posts, we're routing all political posts here until this is over.
The only exception are results for major Arizona elections / propositions, etc. Those should be their own post, and we'll keep the first one that links to official announcement results.
We welcome different views, but they have to be respectful. Use the Report button on any problems you see, and don't feed the trolls.

Voting Info

All of the following links are taken directly from our Arizona Politics and Elections wiki page. There are links to each county elections department available on the wiki page too.

2020 General Election

What's on the Ballot

  • There are 3 federal contests that Arizona registered voters will be casting ballots to decide
    • President of the United States
    • United States Senate – This is a special election required by law because the office is currently being filled by an appointment. This seat will also come up for election in 2022, which is its normal cycle rotation.
    • United State House of Representatives
  • All Arizonans will be voting in only one statewide contest, the Arizona Corporation Commission. There are three seats that will be decided.
  • Ballot Initiatives

How to Register & Where to Vote

Candidate & Ballot Information

Master list of endorsements in no particular order or political affiliation:
Please keep comments civil and on topic.
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Coronavirus (COVID-19) Megathread - News and Updates - 7

Covid-19 Fundraisers & Donation Links via Amnesty International

If you need support or know someone who does, Please Reach Out to Your Nearest Mental Health Specialist.

Covid-19 Information via Indian Government

India Community

Covid-19 Trackers, News, Updates

Useful Guides, Precautions, Helpful Tips, Self Assessment

How to Quarantine Yourself via NYTimes

Precautions for prevention of Corona Virus

Currently there is no vaccine available to protect against human coronavirus but we can reduce the transmission of virus by taking following precautions:

Share your Idle CPU/GPU Power towards finding solutions for Covid-19

  • Do you have a CPU/GPU sitting at home, not doing anything? If yes, and you are willing to let it work for drug discovery, please check out folding at home. The following text is from /pcmasterrace Join us and donate your unused GPU and CPU computing power to fight against Coronavirus (and several other illnesses, like Cancer, Parkinson's, etc). To download CLICK HERE.
  • To learn more about the project, or if you need more instructions on how to run it, check out https://pcmasterrace.org/folding.
Older Threads: Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 | Part 5 | Part 6
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Phoenix Pre-Election + Voting Megathread

We're refreshing the election megathread one last time, and today will be asking that ALL political posts and discussions go here. The exception would be any breaking news that impacts the election in a major way.
We also have a Live Chat up that will run throughout the day for discussion of how things are going.
And please remember we're fine with disagreeing on issues but don't make fights personal. If you see something inappropriate in the comments Report it to the mods.

Voting Information

Propositions

Judges

Endorsements

Master list of endorsements in no particular order or political affiliation:
If there are other threads you think we should link here, let us know or reply to this comment.
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Daily Q&A, Discussion, Owner Experience, and Support Thread

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NMSC Alternate Entry Requirements for the Class of 2022

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#TeamHaleakala start time and schedule

The results are in!
With 44% of respondents selecting it, the 10am ET / 7am PT time slot was clearly the most popular option for our Saturday start time, so we'll go with that. (The next closest option was 9am ET / 6am PT, chosen by 23% of respondents.)
I've been thinking a lot about the training schedule. For simplicity, rather than conducting a poll each week to determine which rides we'll do that week, I've decided to simply map out the entire training schedule, in advance. For those interested in the logic behind my selections, read on. For those who want to simply jump to the schedule, follow this link:
Training schedule (PDF file)
Training schedule (CSV file)
Here's my thinking on the training schedule...
Class types and instructors: The final challenge consists of five one-hour Climb rides. Given that, our training schedule will consist entirely of 45- and 60-minute rides. (Don't worry. The first week is just one 45-minute ride, and each training session is only 30 minutes longer than the previous one.) While I shot for a mix of class types each week, there's definitely a heavy skew toward Climb rides and Power Zone rides across the 10 weeks. Given that bias, the 60-minute classes are primarily ones taught by Christine D'Ercole, Matt Wilpers and Ben Alldis. For variety, the 45-minute classes are primarily ones taught by Denis Morton, Olivia Amato and Tunde Oyeneyin. By design, no class repeats during the 10-week period, no instructor appears more than once in any given week (except for CDE on the final challenge) and, for the most part, each Saturday session consists of different class types. (On a few weeks, I had to double-up on Climb rides.)
Difficulty level: Again, the final challenge consists of five one-hour classes. The difficulty level across those five classes averages 8.53, with at least one class reaching a difficulty level of 8.71. Since we're starting out with just one 45-minute ride and building up to fives rides for the final challenge, I wanted the earlier sessions to be a bit higher in difficulty (i.e., greater than 8.71). As the weeks progress, and the total length of our Saturday sessions increase, we'll gradually reduce the average difficulty level, until it approaches our target level of 8.53.
The schedule can be found at the link, below. At this point, I don't plan on making any changes to it. If I do make changes (e.g., modifying the schedule around the holidays), I'll let you know. And, regardless, I'll post the current week's schedule on this message board each week, to ensure we're all aligned.
Training schedule (PDF file)
Training schedule (CSV file)
[Edit: Updated original post to include a CSV version of the training schedule, for those who want to view the schedule in a spreadsheet.]
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#TeamHaleakala - Week 1 training

Our 10-week training program for CDE’s 5-hour Haleakala Challenge begins tomorrow! We only have one 45-minute ride this Saturday:

10:00 am ET // 9:00 am CT // 8:00 am MT // 7:00 am PT
45 min Power Zone Max Ride
Matt Wilpers
09/02/20 @ 5:30 AM

No prior sign-up is required. Simply join the class at the indicated time, and your fellow teammates will be there, ready to train with you. (Tip: If you click on the link, above, you can bookmark the class in advance.)

While it's certainly not a requirement, I'd encourage everyone to add the #TeamHaleakala tag to your profile (in addition to #RedditRiders, of course). That'll make it easier to identify fellow teammates for high-fives, etc.

For those who want a preview of next week's plan, the complete training schedule can be found at the links, below.
Training schedule (PDF)
Training schedule (CSV)

See you on tomorrow!
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Daily Q&A, Discussion, Owner Experience, and Support Thread

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Promises of God - YouTube

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